Hrvatska dating on line

10 Feb

Bulgaria – 3,000 BC – Thousands of uniformly ‘pressed’ gold ‘beads’ were discovered in a Thracian horde in the Bulgarian ‘Valley of the Kings’.The beads, which are only millimetres in diameter, have the appearance of minute ‘washers’, which show evidence of ‘pressing’ on both sides.The amount discovered, and their uniformity, have led to the suggestion that they were mass-manufactured, or machine made.For example, it could act as a deoxidant in casting, preventing the metal becoming too brittle, and it increased the hardness of edges formed on tools and weapons by hammering.There are various opinions about which methods were used to introduce the arsenic, but by the 1970s most researchers believed that the arsenic was there because Bronze Age metalworkers had selected copper ores that were naturally rich in the element.

When archaeologists put metal artefacts in chronological order, they have always assumed that as metals technology evolved, simple designs and materials would gradually be replaced by more sophisticated and specialised ones.Comparisons between such metalwork typologies for various parts of Europe supported the diffusion hypothesis.The appearance of metals in the archaeological record of the British Isles was associated with other changes, particularly a shift in burial practices and the appearance in graves of a new form of pottery, shaped like a small cup or beaker.Archaeologists had found evidence for similar changes in central Europe and Iberia at the beginning of the Bronze Age, and it seemed likely that Britain was invaded and settled by a new population from elsewhere in Europe, possibly the Rhineland. Not only that, but axes, by far the most common Early Bronze Age artefact, were unevenly distributed across the British Isles: there are heavy concentrations in Ireland, most of the earliest forms in the south-western region of Munster.Only later did centres of production develop outside Ireland; these made more developed forms of flat axe in which the metal had different impurity patterns, including relatively high levels of nickel.Although the significance of arsenical copper in the earliest part of the Bronze Age is still disputed, it does seem that arsenical copper was not intentionally produced in order to make better tools.

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