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When the Danish army conquered the city in 866, its name became Jórvík.The Emperors Hadrian, Septimius Severus and Constantius I all held court in York during their various campaigns.During his stay 207–211 AD, the Emperor Severus proclaimed York capital of the province of Britannia Inferior, and it is likely that it was he who granted York the privileges of a 'colonia' or city.Welsh -og) meaning either "place of the yew trees" (cf.efrog in Welsh, eabhrac in Irish Gaelic and eabhraig in Scottish Gaelic, by which names the city is known in those languages); or less probably, Eburos, 'property', which is a personal Celtic name mentioned in different documents as Eβουρος, Eburus and Eburius, and which, combined with the same suffix *-āko(n), could denote a property.

In 2011 the urban area had a population of 153,717, The word York (Old Norse: Jórvík) derives from the Latinised name for the city, variously rendered as Eboracum, Eburacum or Eburaci.

The first mention of York by this name is dated to circa 95–104 AD as an address on a wooden stylus tablet from the Roman fortress of Vindolanda in Northumberland.

Archaeological evidence suggests that Mesolithic people settled in the region of York between 80 BC, although it is not known whether their settlements were permanent or temporary.

By the time of the Roman conquest of Britain, the area was occupied by a tribe known to the Romans as the Brigantes.

It is thought that Eboracum is derived from the Brythonic word Eborakon, a combination of eburos "yew-tree" (cf.

Old Irish ibar "yew-tree", Welsh efwr "alder buckthorn", Breton evor "alder buckthorn") and suffix *-āko(n) "place" (cf.

It became the capital of the Roman province of Britannia Inferior, and later of the kingdoms of Northumbria and Jórvík.

In the Middle Ages, York grew as a major wool trading centre and became the capital of the northern ecclesiastical province of the Church of England, a role it has retained.